When strains of the above organisms are found to be resistant to other aminoglycosides, including gentamicin, tobramycin and kanamycin, many are susceptible to amikacin in vitro!
Y dear Nechama, I just finished re-reading the JDA Pesach Guide. Again I impressed with your scholarly review and your pearls of wisdom. It deserves publication in a prestigious journal such as Endocrine Practice, Diabetes Care, or Diabetes Forecast. I honored and privileged to be named as a reviewer and a colleague! Yasher Koach! An incredible work of art, indeed.
E. H. Boykin, M. J. Daniels, D. L. Andrews and M. K. Selgrade. ITB ETD, USEPA, Research Triangle Park, NC. Exposure to certain low molecular weight chemicals is associated with asthma. A simple method to identify this hazard is needed. Increased expression of Th2 cytokine mRNA in draining lymph nodes following dermal exposure and increased production of Th2 cytokines by cultured cells from these lymph nodes have been pursued as possible screening tests, usually with chemicals of known sensitizing potential. Previously, we developed cytokine mRNA profiles using the RNAse protection assay for 6 diisocyanates some well-documented sensitizers and others less documented ; , 1% toluene diisocyanate TDI 2% diphenylmethane-4, 4'-diisocyanate MDI 2% dicyclohexylmethane-4, 4'diisocyanate HMDI 2% isophorone diisocyanate IDPI; 1% P-tolyl mono ; isocyanate TMI 1% metatetramethylene xylene diisocyanate TMXDI and 1% dinitrochlorobenzene DNCB, not a respiratory sensitizer ; . The diisocyanates could be divided into high & low responders based on Th2 cytokines. Here we compare cytokine profiles obtained for these same chemicals using different methods. Lymph node cells from treated animals were cultured with and without concanavalin A ConA ; . Supernatants from ConA treated 24 hr culture ; and untreated cells 120 hr culture ; were collected. Both ELISA and Luminex were used to assay supernatants for cytokines. Message RNA in lymph node and cultured cells was assessed using RTPCR. For all methods tested the diisocyanates fell into 2 groups similar to those identified using RNAse protection Th2 cytokines. As with the RNAse protection assay, we were unable to make distinctions between the diisocyanates and DNCB based on the Th1 cytokines. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 MCP-1 ; , a cytokine associated with diisocyanate asthma was most prominently expressed in cells from HMDI, IDPI, TMXDI, and DNCB treated mice. In summary, regardless of method used diisocynates fell into 2 groups based on Th2 cytokine profiles. Th1 and MCP-1 did not yield useful distinctions. This abstract does not reflect EPA policy.
Except for amikacin , which appeared to exhibit the lowest intrinsic renal toxicity, nephrotoxicity was correlated with the tubular reabsorption of each aminoglycoside.
Efficacy data and poor in vitro results. Minocycline generally has excellent in vitro activity, and has been successfully used at doses of 100-200 mg twice daily as an alternative agent in pulmonary and even cerebral infection. 21 ; Other useful drugs in the management of Nocardia include imipenem, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, amikacin, and amoxicillin clavulanic acid. 34, 37, 38 ; Therapy should be continued in the immunosuppressed person for at least 12 months, as shorter durations of therapy have been associated with relapse and increased mortality. 35, 39 ; In cases of disseminated infection, therapy should include at least two active agents. In CNS infections, cotrimoxazole is generally used in combination with imipenem, amikacin or a third-generation cephalosporin. Different Nocardia species may differ in their in vitro susceptibility to antibiotics, and species identification is critical to guiding the selection of therapeutic agents. 21.
Amikacin dosage for koi
No way it could happen. Drugs are a very selfish thing. It goes against a lot of the central tenets of the things I have always claimed to believe in -- the Arcadian dream of the freedom of the senses, not oppressing anyone, and not being oppressed and aminoglutethimide.
2, 5, 10 ; . has been reported that i ; the effect of AAC 6' ; enzyme on amikacin is variable 5 ii ; that the APH 3' ; -IV enzyme from S. aureus will inactivate amikacin an effect which is not apparent in susceptibility test ; 2 and iii ; that S. aureus strains with ANT 4' ; enzyme were only slightly resistant to amikacin, even though amikacin is susceptible to the enzyme 10 ; . Our data Table 6 ; generally support these conclusions. The strains with AAC 6' ; enzymes had amikacin and Sch 21420 MICs ranging from very susceptible to marginally resistant to very resistant. MICs were higher with S. aureus strains that produced APH 3' ; -IV enzymekthan with strains that produced APH 3' ; -I or APH 2" ; enzymes but still were within the susceptible or moderately susceptible range as reported by Courvalin and Davies 2 ; . The S. aureus strains that produced ANT 4' ; enzyme were quite susceptible to amikacin and Sch 21420 as indicated by the MICs as reported by Le Goffic et al. 10 ; . In the instance of some strains where amikacin and Sch 21420 MICs were elevated to marginally susceptible or marginally resistant levels, we do not know whether they were indicative of a low level of enzymatic activity, a reduction in the capacity of the drug to enter the cells, or a limited innate resistance to these drugs. Sch 21420 and amikacin were inactive on the 12 permeability mutants, as were the other four aminoglycosides in most cases. The exceptions were the marginal susceptibilities of two strains of E. coli to sisomicin and netilmicin. In fact, these two strains were more susceptible to all the drugs than were the other 10 permeability mutants. The data show that Sch 21420 and the other five aminoglycosides tested in this study were bactericidal for most of the strains tested. The lethal activity on S. marcescens was decreased for all six aminoglycosides but especially for netilnicin and sisomicin. Of the six drugs tested, Sch 21420, amikacin, and tobramycin were most 1actericidal. The effect of cations on the activity of Sch 21420 and amikacin is species specific and does not appear to be correlated with any resistance mechanism. The effect is mainly limited to P. aeruginosa Tables 5 and 6 ; and is apparent with both drugs. To a lesser degree, it was also noted with A. calcoaceticus subsp. anitratus, but a significant effect was seen only with Sch 21420. The effect of cations on P. aeruginosa is well known 4 ; , but data on the effect on the Pseudomonas species and nonfermentative organisms is limited. These data show that cations have little effect on other Pseudomonas species including P. cepacia, P. maltophilia, P. acido.
Amikacin in pregnancy
Penem, and amikacin ; against 358 gram-negative and grampositive bacteria. This work was presented in part at the 28th Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy [G. Beskid, V. Fallat, E. Lipschitz, D. McGarry, R. Cleeland, K.-K. Chan, D. Keith, and J. Unowsky, 28th ICAAC, abstr. no. 447, 1988] and aminophylline.
By kerri lopez, western tribal diabetes project wtdp ; director and crystal gust, wtdp specialist the western tribal diabetes project hosted a nike fitness training and provided tools to help strengthen local fitness and nutrition programs.
Examined the relationship between inherent risk of the drug defined as the potential for the drug to cause therapeutic problems if a biologically inequivalent substitute for the drug were used ; and drug product selection intentions of pharmacists. Finally, the authors hypothesized that inherent risk in drugs and pharmacists' drug product selection intentions are inversely related. The study results provide managed care and amoxapine.
Of the heart of the one who prays. See the Avesta Aban Yast. ; No prayer, breathed out with faith, sincerity and piety, and the same being righteous in its purpose, was ever left unanswered. None and never. Of this let man be ever sure: "And all things whatsoever ye shall ask in prayer, believing, ye shall receive." St. Matthew Ch. XXI. Verse 22. ; The prayer of the good mother, righteous as it was, and heaved out in faith and piety was heard and answered and granted. The withered form once more was at the window one day, staring vacantly as ever she had done. When lo! A fast moving form disturbed the monotony of that faultless line beyond; The speck drew near; the fast-ebbing life-breath of the mother, rose at once into a raging flood. A scream of rapturous joy escaped her lips, - it was the son come back to his mother. They met and the records say that in the tumult of the moment's high emotions, the mother sprayed forth in unbelievable profusion, the most precious of all fluids, -the milk of her breasts. The Scene indeed was sanctifying. The happiness of Beheram's mother could not have been different nor could it have been less. We narrate this story, not for its novelty, but, as we have just said, for its ennobling influence. The mother's embrace and the mother's joy are a potent factor in the formation and development of the son's character and ideals. A three and a half year's stay at the Firdos with its uplifting and emboldening influence, and added on to this, the one single incident of the mother's embrace, had well combined to transform Behram from a stammering youth, into a stalwart orator, from an illiterate youngster into a veritable Ustad or Guru, and from a crude unpolished individual into a man of humility and humanity. His education and his knowledge had been consummated into perfection at the Firdos; but his personal inclinations, his marvelous tolerance, and his ideal love both for man and beast, his sedate bearing, and the solemn dignity of his general behavior, were the direct result of that overwhelming sentiment of his mother's embrace. The Boy Behram had returned a Ustad or Guru from the Firdos, 69.
Amikacin level monitoring
Add a rating - post your opinion about this drug post your opinion about amikacin sulfate 1-4 of 9 next page - conditions of use: the information in this database is intended to supplement, not substitute for, the expertise and judgement of healthcare professionals and amprenavir.
English-Turkish algogen Chem. algojen algorithm Dis. Mgt. algoritma Alibekov anthrax Bio. Alibekov arbonu alimentary toxic aleukia Med. alimenter toksik alki alkali Med. alkali alkaline Med. alkalin alkaline hydrolysis Chem. alkalin hidrolizi alkalinity Chem. alkalilik alkaloids Chem. alkaloidler alkyl Chem. alkil alkylation Chem. alkilasyon allergic contact sensitivity Chem. allerjik temas duyarlii all-hazards approach Dis. Mgt. tm-tehlikeler yaklaimi allocation Nuc. paylatirma allowable criterion Nat. Dis. meru koullar allowable settlement Gen. meru yerleim allowable stress Dis. Mgt. msade edilebilen stres allowable stress design method Dis. Mgt. msaade edilen stres tasarim metodu alluvial Gen. alvyonlu alluvial deposit Nat. Dis. alvyon birikintisi alluvial fan Nat. Dis. alvyon konisi alluvial fan at the foot of a volcano Nat. Dis. krater dibi alvyon konisi alluvial plain Nat. Dis. alvyon ovasi alpha Rad. alfa alpha decay Nuc. alfa azalimi alpha interferon Med. interfron alfa alpha particle Nuc. alfa paracii alpha radiation Nuc. alfa iinlarinin radyasyonu alpha ray Nuc. alfa huzmesi alphavirus virion Chem. alfavirs viron alphaviruses Bio. alfavirsler Alpine orogeny Nat. Dis. Alp orojeni alternative hypothesis Chem. alternatif hipotez alternative perimeter Verif. alternatif evre alternative technologies Dis. Mgt. alternatif teknolojiler aluminum equivalent Med. alminyum edeeri alveoli Med. alveoller ambient Gen. ortama ait ambient monitoring Protect. evre artlarinin llmesi 106 ambulance Med. ambulans ambulance exchange point Med. ambulans deiim noktasi ambulance service providers Med. ambulans servisi sunanlar amenities Nat. Dis. rahatliklar amenity river channel Nat. Dis. geni nehir yatai americium Chem. amerisiyum amikacin Med. amikasin amine Chem. amin amino acid Med. amino asit aminoglycosides Med. aminoglikozitler aminophylline Med. aminofilin aminopyridines Bio. aminopiridin amiton Chem. amiton ammonia dynamite Mil. amonyak dinamiti ammonia gelatin dynamite Mil. amonyakli jelatin dinamit ammonium nitrate Chem. amonyum nitrit ammonium perchlorate Chem. amonyum perklorat amount of discharge Nat. Dis. ikan su miktari amount of ground water pumping Nat. Dis. ekilen yeralti suyu miktari amount of precipitation Nat. Dis. yai miktari amount of water in flood design Nat. Dis. sel tasarimi iin su miktari amoxicillin Med. amoksisilin amphetamine Med. amfetamin amphibious vehicle Mil. amfibi ara amplification Nat. Dis. bytme amplitude Nat. Dis. genlik amplitude characteristics Nat. Dis. genlik karakteristii amyl nitrite Chem. amil nitrat anabatic wind Dis. Mgt. yama esintisi anaerobe Bio. aneorob anaerobic Bio. aneorobik anaerobic bacteria Med. anaerobik bakteri analeptic Chem. analeptik analgesic Med. analjezik analogue Chem. analog analysis Nat. Dis. analiz analysis of variance Med. varyans analizi.
Amikacin drug interactions
Additionally, the Group had non-UK tax losses to carry forward against certain future non-UK tax liabilities. There was no unprovided deferred taxation liability at any year or period end and anagrelide
Recommended uses for levofloxacin, based on its spectrum of activity, include community-acquired pneumonia, acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis, sinusitis, skin and skin structure infections and complicated urinary tract infections.1 Levofloxacin is also active against many of the pathogens associated with bacterial gastroenteritis.2 Quinolones, particularly the older quinolones i.e. ciprofloxacin ; are not generally used in the treatment of bacterial meningitis. Besides problems of penetration, activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae is marginal. The MIC of levofloxacin for pneumococci is 0.52.0 mg L.3 The human pharmacokinetics of levofloxacin indicate wide distribution after iv administration. The volume of distribution Vd ; averages 1.3 L kg. Peak serum concentra.
MATERIALS AND METHODS Antigen preparation. Amikacin, as a hapten, was conjugated by ethyl carbodiimide 3 ; to the carrier protein porcine thyroglobulin Sigma Chemical Co., St. Louis, Mo. ; . The mole ratio employed in the reaction mixture was 1: 500: 11, of carrier protein to amikacin potency 864 gg mg, obtained from Bristol Laboratories, Syracuse, N.Y. ; to ethyl carbodiimide 1-ethyl-3 [3-dimethylaminopropyl ]-carbodiimide hydrochloride, Sigma Chemical Co. ; , respectively. The and anaprox.
Ci mol; 95% pure, as determined by silica gel thin-layer chromatography with CHCl3-methanol-concentrated NH40H [3: 4: 3] ; was a gift from Schering Corp. [3H]dihydrostreptomycin sesquisulfate 28 Ci mmol ; was purchased from Amersham Corp., Arlington Heights, Ill. Bacterial strains. Tables 1 and 2 list the relevant characteristics of the E. coli strains and plasmids used in this study. Strain W677 pMP1-2, pMP2 ; is a spontaneous mutant that was selected for amikacip resistance from W677 pMP1-1, pMP2 ; , an amikacin-susceptible strain with a plasmidencoded APH 3' ; -II that phosphorylates and confers highlevel resistance to kanamycin. Although the APH 3' ; -II of strain W677 pMP1-1, pMP2 ; has demonstrable activity for amikacin, strain W677 pMP1-1, pMP2 ; is amikacin susceptible. Strain W677 pMP1-2, pMP2 ; has increased APH 3' ; -II activity against amikacin, as well as against kanamycin and the other substrates of the enzyme. The larger 57megadalton ; plasmids from these strains were conjugated into plasmid-free strain L-O 23 ; . From strain W677 pMP1-1, pMP2 ; we selected transconjugant L-O pMP1-1 ; by using and amikacin.
Were analyzed on a 4.6 150-mm Symmetry C18 column 3.5- m particle size; Waters, Milford, MA ; , protected by a Symmetry C18 precolumn 5- m particle size, 3.9 20 mm; Waters ; , and thermostated at 10C. The components were eluted with a gradient of formic acid [2% v v ; in water, pH 2.5; mobile phase A] versus acetonitrile mobile phase B ; at a flow rate of 0.8 ml min. HPLC fractions were collected for off-line radioactivity detection using a Gilson FC 204 fraction collector Gilson, Villier Le Bel, France ; . HPLC method 2 used for analysis of feces extracts ; : equipment 2. The HPLC system consisted of two HPLC pumps model 420; Kontron Instruments, Watford, Herts, UK ; and an HPLC autosampler model 465; Kontron ; . Samples were injected through a 2000- l stainless steel sample loop. Chromatography was monitored by UV detection by a UV HPLC detector model 430 Kontron ; equipped with MT450 software Kontron ; . The chromatography conditions were identical for HPLC methods 1 and 2. Evaluation of HPLC Data. Plasma, urine, or feces extract samples were injected onto the HPLC system, and fractions were collected on Deepwell LumaPlates-96 fraction volume: 0.16 ml; 12 s fraction ; . For each matrix, the recovery from the HPLC column was determined by collection of the total eluent into one flask. An aliquot of the eluent was taken for 14C measurement by LSC. The amounts of metabolites or parent drug in plasma or excreta were derived from the radiochromatograms metabolite patterns ; by dividing the radioactivity eluting from the HPLC column equal to radioactivity in original sample minus losses during sample preparation and chromatography ; in proportion to the relative peak areas. Parent drug or metabolites were expressed as concentrations in micromolar ; in plasma or as percentage of dose in excreta. These values are to be considered as semiquantitative only, as opposed to those determined by the validated quantitative LC-MS assay Bakhtiar et al., 2002 ; . Structural Characterization of Metabolites by LC-MS. Metabolites of [14C]imatinib were characterized by LC-MS following their isolation from plasma collected at 2 h, urine collected between 0 and 72 h, and feces collected between 0 and 48 h pools of three or four subjects ; . The isolated metabolites were injected onto a 4 3-mm Polar-RP trapping column Phenomenex and androgel.
Amikacin trade name
Antibacterial activity of dactimicin. The susceptibilities of 513 gram-negative and gram-positive isolates to dactimicin and reference aminoglycosides are shown in Table 1. Dactimicin inhibited 50% of the isolates from the family Enterobacteriaceae tested at a concentration of c2 , ug with the exception of-Proteus mirabilis, Providencia rettgeri, and Citrobacter freundii 4 , ug ml ; The MIC for 90% of the strains MIC90 ; ranged from 2 to 16 , ml. The majority of species were inhibited by c4 , ug with the exception of Proteus mirabilis and C. freundii 8 , ug ml ; and Providencia rettgeri and Providencia stuartii 16 , u.g ml ; . In comparison with amikacin, gentamicin, and tobramycin, the activity of dactimicin against members of the Enterobacteriaceae closely paralleled that of amikacin. Dactimicin was two to four times more active than amikacin against K. pneumoniae, S. marcescens, Citrobacter diversus, Providencia stuartii, Enterobacter agglomerans, Yersinia species, and Salmonella species. Gentamicin and tobramycin were more active against isolates susceptible to all the agents. Dactimicin did not inhibit most P. aeruginosa MIC50 of 64 , ug and MIC%0 of 128 , ug ml ; , unlike the reference aminoglycosides. Pseudomonas cepacia and Pseudomonas stutzeri had dactimicin MICs of 4 , g ml, similar to amikacin, but Pseudomonas acidovorans and Xanthomonas maltophilia were resistant. Dactimicin did not inhibit most of our methicillin-resistant S. aureus and methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci, the majority of which were S. epidermidis MICs of 8 , ug The MIC50 was 2 , ug ml for methicillinsusceptible S. aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci. The methicillin-resistant staphylococci were resistant to the other aminoglycosides. Effect of growth conditions. The inoculum size of most organisms tested had a minor effect on the dactimicin MICs determined by the agar dilution method. For most organisms, the MICs showed a twofold increase when the inoculum size was increased from 105 to 107 CFU. The effect of different media and pH values on the activity of dactimicin was determined. The dactimicin MICs determined for E. coli, K. pneumoniae, S. marcescens, P. aeruginosa, Providencia stutzeri, and S. aureus were lowest in nutrient agar among the four media tested. Dactimicin was more active at pH 8 than pH 6 or MICs against E. coli, K. pneumoniae, and S. aureus under aerobic or anaerobic conditions were similar. The addition of 4.5 or 9 mM magnesium or 4.5 mM calcium produced no significant increase in MICs or MBCs beyond those found in normal supplemented Mueller-Hinton broth. MICs and MBCs differed at most by twofold for members of the Enterobacteriaceae and staphylococci. Killing curves and PAE. The time-kill curves for dactimicin against an E. coli strain with an MIC and MBC of 1 , ug and a K. pneumoniae strain with an MIC and MBC of 2 and 4 , g ml, respectively, are shown in Fig. 1 and 2. There was a 3 and 5.5 log1o decrease, respectively, in CFU after a 2-h exposure to drug concentrations two and four times the MIC for E. coli. No regrowth of bacteria occurred during the next 8 h, but regrowth at 24 h was seen at two times the MIC, whereas none was noted at four times the MIC. For K. pneumoniae, the fall in CFU was slower than for the E. coli, but by 6 h there was a 5.5 log1o decrease in CFU at a concentration four times the MIC. The PAE of dactimicin was 7 h for E. coli with an MIC of 1 , ug exposed to a concentration of 8 , ug ml. The PAE was.
Amikacin drug medication side effects
Rotoxicity in humans. J. Infect. Dis. 5 Suppl. 2 ; : S284-S292. 21. Lipsky, J. J., and P. S. Lietman. 1980. Neomycin inhibition of adenosine triphosphatase: evidence for a neomycin phospholipid interaction. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 18: 532-535. 22. Lipsky, J. J., and P. S. Lietman. 1982. Aminoglycoside inhibition of a renal phosphatidylinositol phospholipase C. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 220: 287-292. 23. Luft, F. C., W. M. Bennett, and D. M. Gilbert. 1983. Experimental aminoglycoside nephrotoxicity: accomplishments and future potential. Rev. Infect. Dis. 5 Suppl. ; : 268-283. 24. Luft, F. C., R. Block, R. S. Sloan, M. N. Yum, R. Costello, and D. R. Maxwell. 1978. Comparative nephrotoxicity of aminoglycoside antibiotics in rats. J. Infect. Dis. 138: 541-545. 25. Maher, J. F. 1976. Toxic nephropathy, p. 1376-1379. In B. M. Brenner and F. K. C. Rector ed. ; , The kidney. The W. B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia. 26. Newman, R. A., L. B. Weinstock, D. W. Gump, M. P. Hacker, and J. W. Yates. 1980. Effect of osmotic diuresis on gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Arch. Toxicol. 45: 213-221. 27. Pickering, L. K., and P. Gearhart. 1979. Effect of time and concentration upon interaction between gentamicin, tobramycin, netilmicin, or amikacin and carbenicillin or ticarcillin. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 15: 592-596. 28. Pickering, L. K., and I. Rutherford. 1981. Effect of concentration and time upon inactivation of tobramycin, gentamicin, netilmicin and amikacin by azlocillin, carbenicillin, mecillinam, mezlocillin and piperacillin. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 217: 345-349. 29. Riff, L. J., and J. L. Thomason. 1982. Comparative aminoglycoside inactivation by beta-lactam antibiotics. J. Antibiot. 35: 850-857. 30. Schibeci, A., and J. Schacht. 1977. Action of neomycin on the metabolism of polyphosphoinositides in the guinea pig kidney. Biochem. Pharmacol. 26: 1769-1774. 31. Thiel, G., F. D. McDonald, and D. E. Oken. 1970. Micropuncture studies for protection of renin depleted rats from glycerol induced acute renal failure. Nephron 7: 67-69. 32. Tolins, J. P., and L. Raij. 1988. Adverse effect of amphotericin B administration on renal hemodynamics in the rat. Neurohumoral mechanisms and influence of calcium channel blockade. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 245: 594-599. 33. Wade, J. C., S. C. Schimpff, and P. H. Wiernik. 1981. Antibiotic combination associated nephrotoxicity in granulocytopenic patients with cancer. Arch. Intern. Med. 141: 1789-1793. 34. Walker, P. P., and S. V. Shah. 1987. Gentamicin enhanced production of hydrogen peroxide by renal cortical mitochondria. Am. J. Physiol. 253: 495-499. 35. Walker, P. D., and S. V. Shah. 1987. Evidence suggesting a role for hydroxyl radical in gentamicin-induced acute renal failure in rats. J. Clin. Invest. 81: 334-341. 36. Whelton, A., and W. G. Walker. 1974. Intrarenal antibiotic distribution in health and disease. Kidney Int. 6: 131-137 and antabuse.
Horn and colleagues found that vascular invasion is an independent prognostic factor for distant metastasis but not for survival. By multivariate analysis, Chapuis and colleagues found vascular invasion to be an independent prognostic factor for survival, but this was not confirmed by Wiggers et al or Minsky et al and aminoglutethimide.
MATERIALS AND METHODS Subjects. Five adult patients with end-stage renal disease who were participating in the CAPD program at The Mary Imogene Bassett Hospital, Cooperstown, N.Y., were enrolled in the study. The study was approved by the Committee for the Protection of Human Subjects. Written informed consent was obtained from each patient. All patients had received CAPD treatment for at least 1 month and were medically stable prior to initiation of the study. All patients had achieved a stable dry weight. Patients were excluded if they had received amikacin within 1 month prior to the study, had severe cardiovascular or pulmonary disease, or had evidence of volume excess. No patient developed peritonitis during or between study periods. On the day of the study, both a visual inspection and a cell count of the dialysate was performed to rule out acute peritonitis prior to the amikacin dose. Study design. A crossover study design was used so that each patient received i.v. and i.p. amikacin with no less than 4 weeks between doses. For i.v. drug administration, a single dose of amikacin 7.5 mg kg ; was administered, followed by a saline flush via venous cannula over a 2- to 4-min period, following the i.p. infusion of 2.0 liters of fresh Delflex peritoneal dialysate containing 2.5% glucose DelMed, Inc., Canton, Mass. ; over 10 min. For i.p. drug administration, a single dose of amikacin 7.5 mg kg ; was infused in 2.0 liters and antara.
Amikacin renal failure
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Once daily amikacin dosing
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