By L. H. BANNISTER From the Department of Biology, Guy's Hospital Medical School, London ; With 4 plates.
Receptor action and the roles of the histone acetyl transferase, TIP60 and histone deacetylases as important transcriptional modifiers for the androgen receptor. Other ongoing projects include the study of ubiquitin-dependent proteasome-mediated destruction of the androgen receptor and the role of the E3 ubiquitin ligases, Mdm2 and PIRH2 a novel coregulator of the androgen receptor ; . Recently, this research has been extended to include the action of lysine- and arginine- methylation in androgen receptor function.
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ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA Patients must have undergone previous surgery and had a recurrent neuropathologically proven anaplastic astrocytoma. Patient ages could range from 18 to 50 years. Tumors must have progressed following definitive radiotherapy and at least 1 previous chemotherapy regimen that included a nitrosourea. At least 4 weeks must have elapsed since the last dose of chemotherapy 6 weeks for nitrosoureas ; , and patients must have recovered from the adverse effects of previous therapy. Patients could not have received previous tamoxifen therapy. Patients must have had radiographically measurable intracranial disease wherein recurrent tumor was bidimensionally measurable using radiography cranial contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging [MRI] or computed tomography [CT] ; .32 Reoperation for confirmation of recurrent anaplastic astrocytomas was not required. Pregnant or lactating women were not permitted to participate. Patients of childbearing potential age implemented adequate contraceptive measures during participation. Patients must have had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 to Karnofsky score 60 ; and a life expectancy greater than 3 months. Adequate hematologic, renal, and hepatic functions were required and were defined by the following: absolute granulocyte count of at least 1.5 109 L or white blood cell count of at least 4.0 109 L; platelet count of at least 100 109 L; total bilirubin level of no more than 30.8 mol L 1.8 mg dL transaminase level of no more than 3 times the upper limit of normal; creatinine concentration of no more than 137.2 mol L 1.8 mg dL and normal results of an electrocardiogram.
Activities planned Eastern Indonesia, owing to its location in the convergence zone of three major plates the Eurasian, Indo-Australian and the Pacific ones ; , has been subjected to active tectonism. Among other phenomena, Quaternary reef terraces have been uplifted to several hundred metres a.s.l. in many islands of the region, such as along the western coast of Timor, in the vicinity of Luwuk in the east arm of Sulawsi and on Buton Island. The lowest terraces have been dated by the radiocarbon method. Uplift rates range from 0.01 to 12.9 mm year. The figures have been calculated from the elevation of Holocene terraces as well as from the ages of raised coral reefs. They have been correlated with the Quaternary sea-level change curve. Malaysia Four Quaternary stratigraphic units have been delineated on the basis of lithology, heavy minerals content, age, and to a lesser extent of paleoenvi ronment. The first edition of a Quaternary Geological Map of Peninsular Malaysia 1: million ; will soon be published. Thailand Based on macrofossil and palynological studies as well as on radiocarbon dating of some suitable samples of the upper sequence of Quaternary deposits in various parts of Thailand, the upper sequence of Quaternary deposits and their relation with sea-level changes have been established. Neotectonism in the Lower Central Plain of Thailand has been reported with uplift rates of about 2.4 mm year. The Chinese Working Group of the project held a Symposium on 'Quaternary Processes and Events in the Offshore and Coastal Areas of China', in Qingdao, 23-27 October 1987. Beside the group members, it was attended by 36 participants from 25 institutions in East China. The 15 papers presented focused on three aspects: 1 ; Quaternary marine sediments, sea-level.
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Of hiccups are not known from our case report. Nevertheless, we postulate two possible mechanisms of action for the suppression of hiccups by atropine. First, atropine could act directly on the esophagus by means of decreasing intraesophageal pressure. Because atropine can completely abolish the effects of muscarinic receptor agonists, which increase tone and motility of the gastrointestinal tract, atropine might reduce the peripheral mechanoreceptor-mediated reflex by decreasing intraesophageal pressure. Second, atropine may act indirectly on the central nervous system via enhancement of sympathetic nerve activity. Because the usefulness of ephedrine for treatment of intraoperative hiccups was reported 9 ; , the sympathetic stimulation might play some role in the suppression of hiccups. Although further clinical investigation is needed, atropine may be useful in the treatment of hiccups after the LMA insertion and auranofin.
He must leave them behind him, and at the last be found very fool. But thou O' Lord ; whose throne is most glorious, excellent and most adequate, which dwelleth in the place of our holy rest: Thou art the comfort of Israel. All they that forsake thee, shall be confounded: all they that depart from thee, shall be written in earth, for they have forsaken the Lord the very * condite of the waters of life. Heal me, O' Lord, and I shall be whole: save me, and I shall be saved, for thou art my praise. Behold, these men say unto me: Where is the word of the Lord? Let it come. Where as I nevertheless leading the flock in thy ways, have compelled none by violence. For I never desired any mans death, this knowest thou well. My words also are right before thee. Be not now terrible unto me, O' Lord, for thou art he in whom I hope, when I in peril. Let my persecutors be confounded, but not me: let them be afraid, and not me. Thou shalt bring upon them the time of their plague, and shall destroy them right sore. Again, thus hath the Lord said unto me: Go stand under the gate, where through the people and the kings of Juda go out and in, yee under all the gates of Jerusalem, and say unto them: Hear the word of the Lord, ye kings of Juda, and all thou people of Juda, and all ye citizens of Jerusalem, that go through this gate: Thus the Lord commandeth: Take heed for your lives, that ye carry no burden upon you in the Sabbath, to bring it through the gates of Jerusalem: ye shall bear no burden also out of your houses in the Sabbath, as I commanded your fathers. How be it they obeyed me not, neither harkened they unto me: but were obstinate and stubborn, and neither obeyed me, nor received my correction. Nevertheless, if ye will hear me sayeth the Lord ; and bear no burden in to the city through this gate upon the Sabbath: If ye.
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Materials and methods The experimental model used in this study has been described previously.8' 9 Albino rabbits weighing 2 to 3 received 6 mm penetrating keratoplasties. Donor rabbits were enucleated under sedation with fentanyl-droperidol Innovar; McNeil Laboratories, Inc., Ft. Washington, Pa. ; . After removal of the anterior segment from the globe, the donor button was immersed in either sterile lactated Ringer's solution control group ; or a lactated Ringer's solution containing 25 mg L Con A CalBiochem, Behring Corp., Lots 610049 and 910026 ; . All solutions were prepared immediately prior to their use and were maintained before and during their use at 4 to Solutions were buffered to maintain a pH range of 7.4 to 7.69. Donor material was immersed for 30 min prior to keratoplasty. Recipient animals were premedicated with chlorpromazine Thorazine; SmithKline Corp., Philadelphia, Pa. ; , 25 mg, intramuscularly 1 hr preoperatively and were anesthetized with heparinized pentobarbital Nembutal; Abbott Laboratories, North Chicago, 111. ; intravenously. With a clean but not sterile technique, the 6.5 mm donor buttons were placed into 6.0 mm central recipient sites and were secured with a running suture of 8-0 black silk. All animals received atropine ointment and gentamicin ointment on the.
A. Sources of non-protein calories 1. Carbohydrate solutions contain dextrose, which contains 3.4 kcal gm 2. Lipid solutions contain 9.1 kcal gm B. Protein calories. Amino acid solutions contain protein in a concentration of 4 kcal gm II. Enteral nutrition A. Enteral nutrition is more physiologic and technically easier to administer than parenteral nutrition. Enteral nutrition can be administered via nasogastric, nasoduodenal or nasojejunal tubes, or gastrostomy or jejunostomy tubes. B. Continuous enteral infusion 1. Initial enteral solution infusion starts at 30 m hr. Increase rate by 30 mL 4-hour intervals as tolerated until the final rate is achieved. Residual volume should be measured every 4 hours; hold feedings for 1 hour if the residual is greater than 2 times the infusion rate. 2. Gastric duodenal feedings: Start with full strength formula and increase the rate until the goal is achieved. 3. Jejunal feedings: Start with 1 4 strength formula. Increase the rate until the goal is achieved. Once at goal rate, change to 1 2 strength formula for 4-8 hours, then strength formula for 4-8 hours, then full strength formula for 4-8 hours. This method allows the mucosa of the distal small bowel to adjust to the increased osmolarity of enteral formulas. C. Bolus feedings: Give 50-100 cc enteral nutrition every 3 hours initially. Increase by 50 cc each feeding until the goal of 250-300 cc q 3-4 hours is achieved. Flush tube with 100 cc of water after each bolus. D. Promotility agents are given to improve gastric emptying 1. Metoclopramide Reglan ; 5-10 mg PO IV q6h OR 2. Erythromycin 125 mg IV or via nasogastric tube q8h. E. Antidiarrheal Agents 1. Loperamide Imodium ; 2-4 mg q6h. 2. Diphenoxylate atropine Lomotil ; 2.5-5.0 mg q4 6h and avandamet.
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Impairment of activity and well-being is directly attributable to the presence of chronic pain; confounding variables, such as co-morbidity, may be present, or pain may be a secondary symptom of another condition, such as ischaemic heart disease. Longitudinal research would help to clarify this situation.
Activation by carbachol in the nuclei studied is unknown. Thus, the present results do not differentiate subtypes of mAChRs or G-proteins. It should be possible, however, for future studies to overcome these two limitations through the use of relatively selective mAChR antagonists and G-protein toxins. A third limitation is that, although the results do quantify G-protein activation by cholinergic stimulation, these in vitro data may differ from G-protein activation during REM sleep. In conclusion, this is the first study to map the distribution of cholinergically stimulated G-proteins in rat brainstem, with specific emphasis on nuclei known to contribute to the regulation of REM sleep. The data provide a novel perspective on the cholinergic transmembrane signal transduction cascade, consistent with recently emerging findings. The results demonstrate cholinergic activation of mAChR-coupled G-proteins that parallels the localization of mAChRs Baghdoyan, 1997b ; . The pharmacological validation of the present [ 35S]GTP S assay, demonstrating agonist concentration dependence and antagonist reversibility, also parallels the dose dependence and atropine blocking of cholinergic REM sleep generation for review, see Baghdoyan, 1997a ; . The present [ 35S]GTP S binding results are consistent with recent data showing that mAChRs, G-proteins, nitric oxide, adenylyl cyclase, cAMP, and protein kinase A in the medial pontine reticular formation modulate cholinergic REM sleep enhancement Shuman et al., 1995; Capece and Lydic, 1997; Leonard and Lydic, 1997 ; . The results encourage future in vivo studies and the exciting opportunity to quantify G-protein activation in relation to different states of electroencephalographic and behavioral arousal and avastin
Chemotherapy induced diarrhea CID ; is a major side effect of some chemotherapeutic agents. Severe diarrhea can be a life threatening disorder if not treated immedi- Patients and methods ately and leads to discontinuation of treatment [1, 2]. The incidence of diarrhea in patients with colorectal Thirty-two patients were treated with octreotide for CID in two cancer carcinoma treated with 5-fluorouracil 5-FU ; and leuco- centers IRB approval was obtained and each patient signed an informed form prior to treatment. All had grade 2 4-6 stools daily ; vorin is about 25% [3, 4]. Diarrhea is the main toxicity in consent 7-9 stools daily ; CID according to WHO toxicity criteria, asor grade 3 a patients treated with irinotecan CPT-11 ; . The risk of result of chemotherapy with 5-FU containing combinations. Patients CID is significantly higher for regimens that contain started treatment either while hospitalized or as outpatients in the fluoropyrimidines and CPT-11. The incidence of diarrhea daycare unit on the first day, continuing treatment at home. All 32 associated with 5-FU and CPT-11 has been reported to patients failed a 48-hour treatment with loperamide before starling octreotide. be as high as 50%-80% [6, 7]. Chemotherapeutic regimens were as follows: Thirteen patients with The etiology of CID is not completely understood. In colorectal cancer Dukes C2 received adjuvant chemotherapy with 5-FU the majority of patients, diarrhea resolves spontaneously and leucovonn Six of ten patients with metastatic colorectal cancer or by treatment with diphenoxylate atropine or lopera- received the same regimen, and four received CPT-11 with leucovorin mide . Some patients remain refractory to this treat- and 5-FU. Three patients with gastric cancer, two with pancreatic two with received ment and need hospitalization for treatment with bowel cancer, basedwith breast cancer and oneone orlaryngeal cancerfollowing: 5-FU combinations including more of the rest nothing by mouth ; and intravenous fluid hydration. cyclophosphamide, epirubicin, cisplatin and methotrexate. One ovarian Octreotide was used by Cascinu et al. for control of CID cancer patient received cyclophosphamide and cisplatin followed by in patients receiving 5-FU . In their study, diarrhea radiotherapy to the pelvis. No patients with the exception of one patient with ovarian cancer ; resolved in 26 of patients. Others also reported similar results using octreotide in the treatment of CID had received radiation therapy. No history of diarrhea before starting chemotherapy was documented. Patients had white blood cell count . Although this agent has been effective against CID, 2500 ul and normal liver and renal function tests and negative stool no widely used guidelines for its use are accepted. We culture. Octreotide was administered by subcutaneous injection 100 ug performed a prospective study to evaluate the efficacy 3x day for three days followed by 50 ug day for an additional.
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STEM CELLS, an international peer-reviewed journal, covers all aspects of stem cell research: embryonic stem cells; tissue-specific stem cells; cancer stem cells; the stem cell niche; stem cell genetics and genomics; translational and clinical research; technology development. STEM CELLS is a monthly publication, it has been published continuously since 1983. The Journal is owned, published, and trademarked by AlphaMed Press, 318 Blackwell Street, Suite 260, Durham, North Carolina, 27701. 2000 by AlphaMed Press, all rights reserved. Print ISSN: 1066-5099. Online ISSN: 1549-4918 and avc.
Materials CGRP and CGRP antagonist CGRP827 were purchased from Peninsula Laboratories Belmont, CA neomycin, verapamil, ruthenium red, N -nitro-L-arginine methyl ester LNAME ; , TTX, and hexamethonium bromide were from Sigma St. Louis, MO atropine sulfate was from Lymphomed Deerfield, IL dantrolene sodium was from Proctor and Gamble Cincinnati, OH and chelerythrine was from RBI Natick, MA ; . All substances were dissolved in distilled water except atropine sulfate, which was dissolved in 0.9% saline. Data Analysis GMCs were identified visually. The phasic contractile response was quantified as area under contractions WINDAQ EX program; DATAQ Instruments, Akron, OH ; . The area under contractions was measured from the beginning of the first contraction after the start of infusion to the point at which the tracing returned to baseline and contractions ceased to occur. All data are expressed as means SE. The n value represents the number of dogs. Statistical analysis was performed by analysis of variance with repeated measures. StudentNewman-Keuls test was used for multiple comparisons when the data were distributed normally, whereas Mann-Whitney's rank sum test was used when the normality test failed; P 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant.
An overdosage of Physostigmine Salicylate Injection can cause a cholinergic crisis. PRECAUTIONS: Because of the possibility of hypersensitivity in an occasional patient, atropine sulfate injection should always be at hand since it is an antagonist and antidote for physostigmine. USAGE IN PREGNANCY: Safe use in pregnancy and lactation has not been established; therefore, use in pregnant women, nursing mothers or women who may become pregnant requires that possible benefits be weighed against possible hazards to mother and child. ADVERSE REACTIONS: Nausea, vomiting and salivation; can be offset by reducing dosage. Bradycardia and convulsions, if intravenous administration is too rapid. See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION. OVERDOSAGE: Can cause a cholinergic crisis. antidote is atropine sulfate. Appropriate and avonex.
What has been your experience with HIV treatment? I've been hospitalized three times. In the beginning, I thought that my good treatment was standard. Finally somebody said, "Rainey, no. It's because of who you are. When your name showed up, there were so many people hand-walking your files through. That's how you got through so fast." And I said, "Are you sure?" They said, "We're positive." As far as the drugs themselves, I have been pretty blessed. There have been a couple I could not deal with, which caused diarrhea or rashes. I take a holistic approach to HIV. My doctors know that I will come off meds when I need to. Two years ago, I just said, "Nope." I started back at the end of last year. Do you have a particular health regimen that helps you stay well? Yes, it's important. I take the stress out of my life. I joke, "Everything I do has a T-cell value. If the meter reads more than five T-cells, I can't do it -- it's too big a sacrifice." I keep a sense of humor about this. I eat right, exercise. I don't smoke; I drink occasionally, usually a glass of wine. How did you choose your doctor? I interviewed him. I started getting referrals several years ago, when I needed a new doctor. When I choose a doctor, I want to know if we're on the same page because I use different methods -- acupuncture, massage, herbs, and vitamins. I want them to understand these too. My doctor and I have a very open communication. I tell him everything I'm doing, he tells me why he's doing what he's doing, and we juggle it out. Everything comes down to me making the final decision. He told me, "If all my people were as conscious about this as you, I wouldn't have any problems." I believe you have to be proactive. It's your health. One of the things HIV has done is changed the doctor-patient relationship from "I'm the doctor, I'm going to tell you what to do" to people asking, "Why are we doing that?" Is your doctor African American? Yes. Do you feel African-American doctors understand African-American patients better? Not necessarily. Sometimes it makes you feel more comfortable to relate to another African American who's familiar with things in the community. But I had a doctor 10 years ago who was white and Jewish, and we had a great time, laughed and joked. He took a very holistic approach to things -- he wanted to know who you were, and took the time to talk to you. Do you participate in an AIDS organization? Has it been helpful in improving your health? and atropine.
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