Histology of Normal and Bleomycin-Treated Lungs To provide a visual correlate to the quantitative hydroxyproline data, we examined Masson trichrome-stained sections of lung tissue by light microscopy. The lungs of saline-treated animals appeared normal, regardless of their TGF- genotype. The lungs of animals receiving intratracheal saline showed only thin bands of collagen immediately adjacent to large vessels and airways data not shown ; . After bleomycin instillation, the lungs of wildgenotype mice contained dense bands of collagen replacing large areas of lung parenchyma Figures 5A and 5B ; . In contrast, the areas of collagen accumulation in the lungs of bleomycin-treated, TGF- deficient mice were fewer in number and considerably less dense Figures 5C and 5D ; . In both the wild-genotype and TGF- deficient mice, areas of lung tissue with increased collagen also contained increased numbers of inflammatory cells. To quantitate the histologic changes observed after bleomycin administration, lung sections were stained, coded, and then blindly scored for inflammation and fibrosis. At Day 14 after bleomycin instillation, the mean inflammation scores were significantly higher in TGF- deficient and wild-genotype mice than in saline controls Table 1 ; . Likewise, TGF- deficient and wild-genotype mice had.
Followed by injury and death of alveolar type 1 cells . Lung disease is usually dose dependent although it can be observed after very small doses [4, 5]. The mortality rate has been quoted at 12% . Death usually follows a prolonged period of increasing dyspnoea . The measurement of gas transfer per unit lung volume KCO ; is sensitive but non-specific and gives no indication of the severity of damage present . A reticular or reticulonodular pattern of pulmonary shadowing, commonly in a symmetrical basal distribution, is generally seen on the plain chest radiograph . Balikian et al describe diaphragmatic elevation as another commonly encountered finding, seen in 16 of patients. Atypical plain radiographic features include subpleural peripheral infiltrate, diffuse pulmonary infiltrate, persistent pleural thickening, and ground glass shadowing . Subtle parenchymal findings are more readily observed with CT than with conventional radiography, with 23% of studies being abnormal in patients with normal chest radiographs . Typically, a coarse, reticular shadowing sometimes associated with nodularity is seen. Large confluent irregular opacities in patients with severe pulmonary damage can simulate metastases . Atypical CT features include diffuse parenchymal shadowing extending throughout both lungs, unilateral lung involvement, and reticular and reticulonodular shadowing in an anterior subpleural distribution in upper lobes . The severity of changes on CT does not correlate with the dose of bleomycin given, or with the presence of pulmonary metastases at presentation . Asymmetrical infiltrate may occur, suggesting alternative pathology and thus resulting in diagnostic delay. Pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum have been described in two patients , where it was postulated that the complication occurred late in the disease when extensive architectural distortion led to rupture of subpleural cysts. Fatal pneumothorax is a rare but recognized complication [12, 13], although pneumomediastinum was not encountered in these patients. To the best of our knowledge, pneumomediastinum in the absence of pneumothorax has not previously been reported and the CT findings of pneumomediastinum in this clinical context have not been demonstrated before. Our patients developed pneumomediastinum in the absence of pneumothorax, suggesting rupture of a subpleural bleb abutting the mediastinum. This rare complication of bleomycin lung toxicity resolved spontaneously in these patients, but too few cases are described in the literature to draw conclusions regarding any prognostic significance.
Bleomycin toxicity deaths
We next assessed pulmonary levels of two potent PAR1-inducible profibrotic mediators known to be elevated in this model. Figures 4 and 5 show representative immunohistochemical staining for CTGF FISP12 and TGF- 1 after intratracheal instillation of bleomycin or saline in WT and PAR-1 mice at 14 days. CTGF FISP12 immunostaining was predominantly localized to bronchiolar epithelium in saline control mice Figure 4, A and B ; . In bleomycin-instilled mice, immunostaining was associated with infiltrating macrophages and interstitial spindleshaped cells Figure 4, C and D ; but appeared less intense in PAR-1 than in WT mice. In contrast, TGF- 1 immunostaining was predominantly localized to alveolar macrophages and to both bronchiolar and alveolar epithelium in saline control mice Figure 5, A and B ; . In bleomycin-instilled mice, the intensity of staining increased markedly and was associated with the alveolar wall, infiltrating macrophages, and extracellular matrix associated with fibrotic foci Figure 5, C and D ; but appeared less intense in PAR-1 than WT mice.
U.S.A. 67: 674-681. 19. Moses, R. E., and C. C. Richardson. 1970. A new DNA polymerase activity of Escherichia coli. I. Purification and properties of the activity present in E. coli PolAl. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 41: 15571564. 20. Moses, R. E. 1972. Replicative deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis in a system diffusable for macromolecules. J. Biol. Chem. 247: 6031-6038. 21. Muller, W. E. G., Z. Yamazaki, H. Breter, and R. K. Zahn. 1972. Action of bleomycin on DNA and RNA. Eur. J. Biochem. 31: 518-525. 22. Muller, W. E. G., A. I. Yamazaki, and R. K. Zahn. 1972. Bleomycin, a selective inhibitor of DNA-dependent DNA polymerase from oncogenic RNA viruses. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 46: 16671673. 23. Reiter, H. 1974. ATP-independent DNA synthesis by DNA polymerase II in toluenized Bacillus subtilis. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 60: 1371-1377. 24. Richardson, C. C., C. L. Schildkraut, H. V. Aposhian, and A. J. Kornberg. 1964. Enzymatic synthesis of deoxyribonucleic acid. XVI. Further purification and properties of deoxyribonucleic acid polymerase of Escherichia coli. J. Biol. Chem. 239-.222-232. 25. Suzuki, H., R. Nagai, H. Yamaki, N. Tanaka, and H. Umezawa. 1968. Mechanism of action of bleomycin: studies with the growing culture of bacterial and tumor cells. J. Antibiot. 21: 379-386. 26. Suzuki, H., K. Nagai, H. Yamaki, N. Tanaka, and H. Umezawa. 1969. Mechanism of action of bleomycin: scission of DNA strands in vitro and in vivo. J. Antibiot. 22: 446-448. 27. Suzuki, K. 1971. Killing action of bleomycin on radiation-sensitive mutants * of Escherichia coli. Jpn. J. Genet. 46: 277-280. 28. Taylor, A. L., and C. D. Trotter. 1972. Linkage map of Escherichia coli strain K-12. Bacteriol. Rev. 36: 504524. 29. Tominago, T. Y. Azyma, T. Maeda, M. Yurino, T. Ishida, T. Tagucki, S. Shiba, K. Horibata, and H. Umezawa. 1973. Effect of bleomycin-As on rat mammary carcinoma induced by 7, 12-dimethyl- a ; anthracene. Gann 64: 617-624. 30. Umezawa, H., K. Maeda, T. Takeuchi, and Y. Okami. 1966. New antibiotics. Bleomycin A and B. Isolation and characterization. J. Antibiot. 19: 200-209. 31. Umezawa, H., Y. Suhara, T. Takita and K. Maeda. 1966. Purification of bleomycin by column chromatography. J. Antibiot. 19: 210-215. 32. Umezawa, H., H. Asakura, K. Oda, S. Hori, and M. Hori. 1973. The effect of bleomycin on SV40 DNA: characteristics of bleomycin action which produce a single scission in a superhelical form of SV40 DNA. J. Antibiot. 26: 521-527. 33. Umezawa, H. 1974. Chemistry and mechanism of action of bleomycin. Fed. Proc. 33: 2296-2302. 34. Yagoda, A., A. Mujherhi, C. Young, E. Etcubanas, C. Lamonte, J. R. Smith, C. T. C. Tan, and I. H. Krakoff. 1972. Bleomycin, an antitumor antibiotic. Ann. Intern. Med. 77: 861-870.
Bleomycin what is
What Are the Management Options?--Zinzani et al 28 ; reported on 50 patients with primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma who were treated with methotrexate, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, prednisone, and bleomycin and radiation therapy. The radiation dose ranged from 30 to 36 1.8 Gy per fraction over 4 5 weeks. The overall survival rate for.
4. Transient flora is more commonly associated with healthcare-related infections than resident flora and boniva.
Chemotherapy often makes use of either single agents such as bleomycin , vincristine , vinblastine , doxorubicin , or etoposide or combinations such as adriamycin, bleomycin, and vincristine.
Patients may be given steroids before bleomycin therapy is started in an effort to reduce the side effects of the drug and bortezomib
Relative amounts of nuclear and cytoplasmic pro-aI I ; andpro-aZ 1 ; mRNAs in control and bleomycin-treated chick skin fibroblasts Chick skin fibroblasts received bleomycin 0.6 pg ml ; at late log phase of growth.After 48 h, the subcellularRNA fractions were isolated as described under "Experimental Procedures." The RNA was bound to nitrocellulose paper and hybridized with either proal [ ; or pro-a2 I ; nick translated cDNA probe in DNA excess. The f S.E. of values from four separate values representthemean experiments.
FIGURE 2. Quantification of NK1r-positive neurons in Laminae I II, Lamniae III IV and Motor horn in cervical, thoracic and lumbar spinal cords of dogs treated for 28 days with PBS, 1.5 150 g SP-SAP or 150 g SAP and bosentan.
DNA-damaging agents, suggests that BLM-1 and BLM-2 lie in different complementation groups. Complementation data de rived from "il fusion experiments confirms this view to be published elsewhere ; . One interesting feature of the bteomycin survival curves for BLM-1 and BLM-2 is the apparent loss with BLM-2, but not BLM-1, of the plateau characteristically seen at levels of survival of around 1%. The finding that BLM-1 is resistant to all the DNA-damaging agents used in this study except bleomycin and Adriamycin may suggest that some form of drug activation mechanism is altered in these cells, as both these drugs have a requirement for oxygen 23 ; . A similar explanation for the drug sensitivity of BLM-2 is less likely for two reasons. Firstly, BLM-2 is sensitive to a broad spectrum of DNA-damaging agents the modes of action of which are very different, and secondly, although sensitive to bleomycin and Adriamycin, BLM-2 is also sensitive to mitomycin C, a drug which is known to be more active under hypoxic conditions 24 ; . A further explanation for the limited range of sensitivities exhibited by BLM-1 could be that one or more of the pathways for the elimination of free radicals is defective in these cells, as bleomycin requires the production of free radicals for its action 25 ; , and Adriamycin generates free radicals 26 ; . This reasoning is again unlikely to apply to BLM-2 due to its sensitivity to agents such as mitomycin C and would also seem to rule out this mechanism as an explanation of the Adriamycin sensitivity of MMC-1 and MMC-5. Adriamycin is thought to intercalate into DNA, and intercalating agents can produce DNA strand breaks via an interaction with topoisomerase II 27 ; . Preliminary results indicate that the 4 Adriamycin-sensitive mutants are also sensitive to the antitumor drug VP16, the interaction with topoisomerase II of which also results in the formation of strand breaks 28 ; . The relative resist ance to X-rays exhibited by these mutants perhaps reflects the fact that DNA strand breaks generated by ionizing radiation arise directly rather than via an enzymatic mechanism. The range of sensitivities exhibited by BLM-2, particularly with respect to bleomycin, Adriamycin, and X-rays, suggests that the rejoining of DNA strand breaks may be defective in these cells. This is currently being investigated. It will also be important to determine whether BLM-2 is genetically equivalent to any of the cell lines isolated from AT patients, which are similarly sensitive to these agents. The phenotypic variation among the mitomycin C-sensitive cells suggests that they belong to several different complemen tation groups. Our current complementation data is consistent with this view to be published elsewhere ; . If the defect in these mutants resulted in the loss of function of a specific cross-link repair enzyme, it would be expected that they would all exhibit considerable sensitivity to BCNU, which generates DNA cross-links at the same site as does mitomycin C O6 position of G residues ; . However, although all 5 mutants show a compa rable level of sensitivity to BCNU, the degree of sensitivity is far less marked than that observed with mitomycin C. As wild-type CHO cells are naturally Mex~ 29 ; , it is extremely unlikely that changes in Mex phenotype are involved. The mitomycin C-sensitive mutants show significant variations in their sensitivity to other cross-linking agents. MMC-1 and MMC-2 are by far the most sensitive to both cis-Pt and chlorambucil [which cross-link at the N7 position of G residues 30 ; ].
Asthma is not a psychological condition; it's a chronic lung disease. As with any chronic disease, students who have asthma may have difficulty coping with it. Students who miss school due to uncontrolled asthma not only miss classroom instruction, they also miss out on social interactions with other children. That can lead to fears of social isolation and fears of being "different" from other children. Some students may develop low self-esteem, withdraw from activities, or have difficulty completing their schoolwork. Counseling with the student and or parent s ; may help students handle problems more effectively. Counseling staff should understand that a student with asthma may feel drowsy or tired, anxious about taking medications, or even embarrassed when disruption to school activities occurs due to an asthma episode. While psychological factors such as stress, anxiety and strong emotional reactions can bring on an asthma episode, the symptoms that appear are physical and require prompt management in order to avoid a crisis and botox.
Reason for Update: Update in layout addition of bleomycin comment Version: 2 Supersedes: Version 1 Prepared by: S Taylor Approved by Lead Chemotherapy Nurse: C Palles-Clark Approved by Consultant: Dr S Essapen Date: 12.3.07 Checked by: S Punter.
In patients with a creatinine clearance of 35 ml per minute, the serum or plasma terminal elimination half-life of bleomycin is approximately 115 minutes and bronchial.
Glut4 ; to the cell surface membrane, independently of transcriptional regulation reviewed in Refs. 176, 265 ; . Together, the biological effects of the transduction cascades are Glut4 translocation to increase glucose uptake in adipose tissue and muscle, the activation of glycogen synthase and thus of glycogen synthesis, and the activation of the S6-kinase that will increase protein synthesis. In addition to or as result of these signaling cascades in target cells, the expression of more than 150 genes expressed in various tissues is transcriptionally regulated by insulin. The diversity of mechanisms of the insulin-mediated transcriptional regulation is extremely wide, as indicated by the variety of promoter
Bleomycin dosesCollagen content of normal and bleomycin-treated lungs. Lung collagen accumulation was quantified by measuring hydroxyproline content Figure 3 ; . Lung hydroxyproline in non-injured wild type and GGT-deficient mice did not show significant differences 8.5 + 0.7 and 8.8 + 0.8 g OH-proline mg dry weight ; . At 72 hours after bleomycin instillation a moderate but significant increase in lung hydroxyproline was noticed in wild-type mice when compared with non-exposed littermates 11.7 + 1.3 g OHproline mg dry weight; p 0.01 ; . In contrast, no changes were observed in GGT null mice. At one month after bleomycin exposure, lung hydroxyproline in wild-type mice was further increased as compared with 72h or saline exposed animals 15.1 + 3.8 g OH-proline mg dry weight; p 0.05 vs 72 h, and p 0.01 vs saline respectively ; . On the contrary, GGTdeficient mice showed a marginal but not significant increase of hydroxyproline content when compared to 72h or saline exposed animals Figure 3 ; . Zymography of lung tissue extracts and bronchoalveolar lavage In order to analyze gelatinases behavior, lung tissue obtained from wild type and GGT - mice both controls and 72 h bleomycin treated animals were examined. A lung tissue zymogram showing two representative samples per group is illustrated in figure 4A. ProMMP-9 band was significantly increased in lung samples from bleomycin- injured wild type as compared to bleomycin- injured GGT null mice. A 2- fold increase was revealed by densitometric quantification of the surface and intensity of lysis bands of zymograms derived from 5 different animals in each group. Likewise, a 2-fold increase of MMP-9 active form was also observed in wild-type bleomycin treated mice as compared to GGT null mice. When samples were treated with aminophenylmercuric-acetate which promotes processing of proMMPs to lower molecular weight active forms it became evident that total and bumetanide.
Bleomycin and oxygen therapy
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